The Pan-American Exposition in 1901 attracted more than 8 million visitors to Buffalo to celebrate the achievements in industry and culture of the Americas, and the recognition of the concept of Pan-Americanism after the recent Spanish-American war. The exposition was constructed on the grounds of Delaware Park, from Delaware to Elmwood and Park Lane to present-day Great Arrow.
The exposition grounds consisted of palatial structures in the Spanish Mission and Renaissance architectural styles, creating an impressive but temporary city in a park setting. The Ethnology Building, pictured here, was situated at the eastern junction of the Grand Esplanade and the Court of Fountains, opposite the Temple of Music. The building housed exhibits of historical interest, including archeological materials such as pottery, books, stuffed animals and Indian relics. There were displays of relief maps of the Niagara Frontier, showing sites of Indian Villages, and the result of ongoing research into customs of still-active regional tribes.